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Resistance welding is a process in which heat is generated at the interface by passing an electric current through it. It is performed under control time and pressure. The term is derived from the fact that the resistance between the workpiece and electrodes are used to generate the heat at the interface. This technology is used in the manufacturing industry of metal sheets and components. It has been part of industrial processes nowadays.
There was a time when metal welding was done by heating the metals to their melting points and then pressed together. Welding technology has advanced considerably after the launch of electricity. Resistance welding, arc welding, and gas welding are advanced forms of this phenomenon. Now ultrasonic, electronic beam and laser welding are also present. Resistance welding with enormous benefits has been contributing to the growth of industries for many years.
It works on simple principles. Force and current are applied through the electrodes. The resistance heat is generated at the interface of the metal parts. It results in the melt joints. Although the huge amount of current flows. Yet, there is no danger of electric shock. Because low voltage is present.
The process of resistance welding is classified into many variants depending upon the shape of the workpiece and form of electrodes. Commonly used resistance welding processes are
It is a predominant process in the automobile industry. It is used in the assembling of automobile bodies and its large components. It is used for the manufacturing of furniture and other domestic products. In this process, the current and heat generation is localized in the form of electrode.
This type of resistance welding is done with specially designed electrodes to shift the shape of the workpiece. Projection welding is used in electrical equipment, electronics, automotive, and construction industries. This process is used in the manufacturing of sensors, valves, and pumps.
In this resistance welding process, the joints are leak-tight by continuous opposing force with electrodes consisting of rotatory wheels. Seam welding is applied in manufacturing containers, radiators and heat exchangers, etc.
It is a forging operation applied to the workpiece when heated. Racks it is a resistance welding process to join metal plates or bars with an applied force of electrodes clamping the workpiece at the ends. It is applied for the manufacturing process of wheel rims, wire joints, and railway track joints.
The electrical and mechanical characteristics of the welding machine greatly affect the welding resistance process.
It is a method of welding seams in oil and gas pipelines. The pipe made through this method forms a sheet of steel into a cylindrical shape. The current is passed to the edges of the steel to heat the steel so that a bond can be formed without the use of welding filler material. It uses low-frequency A.C current. In recent years it has been replaced by a high-frequency process that produces a high-quality weld. The welds manufactured by this process do not corrode and do not develop hook cracks in pipeline construction high-frequency process is used to manufacture pipes. High-frequency methods include flash welding, resistance projection welding, and upset welding.
There are myriads of benefits of resistance welding to use it in industry and on commercial scale. These advantages have increased its use in every filed.